Pick up any newspaper today and it is a safe bet that you will find an article somewhere relating to mobile communications. If it is not in the technology section it will almost certainly be in the business section and relate to the increasing share prices of operators or equipment manufacturers, or acquisitions and take-over’s thereof. Such is the pervasiveness of mobile communications that it is affecting virtually everyone’s life and has become a major political topic and a significant contributor to national gross domestic product (GDP).
The major driver to change in the mobile area in the last ten years has been the massive enabling implications of digital technology, both in digital signal processing and in service provision. The equivalent driver now, and in the next five years, will be the all pervasiveness of software in both networks and terminals. The digital revolution is well underway and we stand at the doorway to the software revolution. Accompanying these changes are societal developments involving the extensions in the use of mobiles. Starting out from speech-dominated services we are now experiencing massive growth in applications involving SMS (Short Message Service) together with the start of Internet applications using WAP (Wireless Application Protocol) and i-mode. The mobile phone has not only followed the watch, the calculator and the organizer as an essential personal accessory but has subsumed all of them. With the new Internet extensions it will also lead to a convergence of the PC, hi-fl and television and provide mobility to facilities previously only available on one network.
The development from first generation analogue systems (1985) to second generation (2G) digital GSM (1992) was the heart of the digital revolution. But much more than this it was a huge success for standardization emanating from Europe and gradually spreading globally.
However, world-wide roaming still presents some problems with pockets of US standards IS-95 (a code division multiple access [CDMA] rather than a time division multiple access [TDMA] digital system) and IS- 136 (a TDMA variant) still entrenched in some countries. Extensions to GSM (2G) via GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) and EDGE (Enhanced Data
rates for GSM Evolution) (E-GPRS) as well as WAP and i-mode (so called 2.5G) will allow the transmission of higher data rates as well as speech prior to the introduction of 3G.
Mobile systems comprise a radio access together with a supporting core network. In GSM the latter is characterized by MAP (Mobile Applications Protocol), which provides the mobility management features of the system.
GSM was designed for digital speech services or for low bit rate data that could fit into a speech channel (e.g. 9.6kbit/s). It is a circuit rather than a packet oriented network and hence is inefficient for data communications. To address the rapid popularity increase of Internet services, GPRS is being added to GSM to allow packet (Internet Protocol [IP]) communications at up to about 100kbit/s.
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“4G Wireless Systems” Seminar Report
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- Limitations Of 3G And Drivers For 4G
- 4G Visions Mapping To Research Topics
- Research Challenges
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- LIMITATIONS OF 3G AND DRIVERS FOR 4G
- 4G VISIONS MAPPING TO RESEARCH TOPICS
- RESEARCH CHALLENGES
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